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探访大飞机首飞的幕后工作者:精打细算排出一场好戏

2018-10-21 11:58:22    新浪综合  参与评论()人

探访大飞机首飞的“幕后工作者”:精打细算排出一场“好戏”

来源:新民晚报

记者:裘颖琼编辑:沈小栋

【新民晚报·新民网】2018-10-21,我国按照国际民航规章自行研制、具有自主知识产权的大型喷气式民用飞机,也是继运-10后自主设计并研制的第二种国产大型客机C919终于迎来首飞。这一天,让太多人熬红了眼。

时钟拨回到4月27日,刚刚清洗和补漆完的C919-101架机回到了试飞中心机库,在这里静候它最重要的“首秀”。首飞当天的细则是如何制定的?时间怎么来把控?本报记者走进试飞中心,独家探访了首飞背后的“幕后工作者”。

编写任务——

首飞完成15个试验点

从起飞到着陆的每一个动作,对于试飞员来说,早先就有一套设定好的“剧本”,这套“剧本”就是任务单,它的编写则是根据任务大纲来设计的。

“任务大纲要列出试飞员要完成的试验点,任务单则是将试验点设计成一套连贯动作。”负责编写首飞任务大纲的工程部部长由立岩向记者解释道,在C919-101架机的首飞任务中,共要完成15个试验点——在地面完成舵面操纵检查,确认飞机的各个活动面输入和响应功能是否正常。在飞机爬升过程中,试飞机组检查机组和地面、机组内部通讯是否正常。抵达空域后,要完成安全着陆所必须的检查,如三向配平、感受性飞行、空速检查、模拟进近着陆复飞等。最后返场着陆,试飞员再次进行舵面操纵检查,采集舵面偏度数据,通过事后数据分析与飞行前的数据进行对比。

感受性飞行,就是在某一高度、速度下,襟缝翼在某一卡位的构型状态下,保持稳定平飞,试飞员柔和操作侧杆调节飞机姿态,初始感受并评价飞机的操纵特性。三向配平则要求试飞员在保持稳定平飞后,松杆飞行10秒钟,观察飞机状态,评价飞机操控稳定性及配平特性。在着陆前,C919-101架机还要先在空中进行一次“模拟进近着陆复飞”,这几个动作要一气呵成。对于试飞员来说,就是将飞机从10000英尺降至8500英尺后,“假想”身下有一条跑道,来感受正常着陆的状态。随后,模拟遇到特殊情况后,飞机再次复飞的状态。成功完成这个试验点后,101架机才能真正返场着陆。

 
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