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王安忆:小剧场在戏剧者是试验场,在观众是大课堂

我本沉默传奇私服网 后来因为凤凰卫视发展新媒体,我回到北京。


来源:文汇报

 

事实上,当我们走进小剧场的时候,就已经作好准备,迎接理解力的考验。你多半会看到极简的舞台,极简的装置,极简的演出者,某些时候,你自己也要承担演出的一部分。然后,暧昧和晦涩就来补偿极简主义。你很快被搞蒙了,努力开动脑筋,发挥想象力吧!现代艺术的概念,不就是参与?受众和创造者,合力完成作品,同时,混淆了观看与被观看的界限。又一道哲学命题出来了,何为艺术,何为人生?小剧场在戏剧者是试验场,在观众则是大课堂。

《乌合之众》等待我们进入的,就是这样的开场。应该承认,多少令人意气消沉。上世纪80年代初始,先锋艺术运动激动起的兴奋,如今趋于平息。在这30年里,离群索居的我们,突飞猛进,追赶古典浪漫主义到现代主义、再到后现代百多年路程,可说一波也没拉下,终至并驾齐驱,在每一轮盛衰周期的缩短中,难免会有省略。容易省略的总是那不打眼的,可恰恰它,也许是本质性的因素。

舞台,说是舞台,实只为一个概念,边缘模糊,随表演区移动伸缩消长,临时取放一二件道具。演员总共6名,三男三女,一律着黑衣,随机更替角色。演出在讲述乌鸦的故事里开头,这讲述还将贯穿在以后的时间里。是为了对情节作出诠释吗?现代艺术几乎就是一部诠释史。诠释分散了本来就不集中的注意力,关于乌鸦的故事过于迎合剧名“乌合之众”,这剧名中的含义且过早为整部戏剧下了结论。但还是有一点感动,为创作者的鲁勇,竟敢于直面观众,大发议论,将隐喻变成明喻。更为冒险的事情还在后面,当演员终于进入角色,演绎情节,不时以第三人称立场念出动作与心理的客观描写,也就是剧本中写在括号里的提示。两军对峙激战正面表现舞台,限制很大,尤其有了电视电影,视觉的胃口扩张,从另一方面说,变得迟钝,需要所谓的冲击力。创作者基本上把交代的重任交给口述,接近小说朗诵,剧本通读则强化了语言的线条性质,三度空间在消解。

虚构的成因还未聚集起来,筑建成事实,存在是相当脆弱的,经不起任何离间,稍不留心便会溃决。倘若离间自有使命,是为形成再一个虚构,就是“戏中戏”的套球游戏,接近“元小说”的模型,那就要求有加倍紧张的关系,风险亦成倍增加。这些实验在上世纪八九十年代风行一时,现如今也已疲倦下来。此时,局面似乎不容乐观,一无规定的舞台,平铺直叙的讲述,没有面目的人,主体与客体的时聚时离,具体性被抽象的企图瓦解,所有的元素都在涣散。依然有一点感动,还是为创作者的鲁勇,致力从个别中提炼普遍规律,重新覆盖个别。觉得出在茫然中摸索,抓挠不着,却坚持不懈。终于,虚无中打捞起一件实物。我以为,就是这件实物,扭转了颓势,就是鞋子。

一双双鞋子登场,布满地面。视野中有了占位,空间划分,形式感回来了。又不单纯是形式感,毕竟是戏剧,而非装置艺术,这两者越来越走拢,边界交错,但最终还是在容积率上分道扬镳。戏剧中的形式需要承担叙事的职责,同时被叙事所限制,纳入规定,负荷沉重得多。鞋子这件实物颇有些意味,它的外形可说直接写实人脚,坊间民俗常用作暗示。记得丰子恺先生有一篇文章,写战乱中阖家避难乡下,曾单独回城办事,一人住在空房,将孩子们的小鞋子排在床前,以解思念之苦。有朋友探访,见此情景大呼不可以,原因是“阴气太重”。“文革”中有一本流传地下的手抄本,名字就叫“一双绣花鞋”。例举这些,是证明鞋子它的寓意已达成公认,象征获取人间形状,与常识接轨。当舞台上站满鞋子,意义浮出水面,观看的耐心开始收取回报。先前的沉闷没有白耗,而是集蓄能量——鞋子这符号,其实是一个允诺,正在接近兑现,时间已经到第九场。

[责任编辑:唐玲]

标签:王安忆 小剧场 戏剧

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